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Rapid Development Of New Technology To Promote The Upgrading Of Infrared Detectors
Sep 06, 2018

Before the 1960s, it was mostly used for unit detector scanning, but its sensitivity was low, and the structure of two-dimensional scanning system was complicated and cumbersome. Increase the probe element, for example, the detector composed of N elements, the sensitivity increases by N1/2 times, an M x N array, the sensitivity increases by (M x N)1/2 times. Increasing the number of elements will also simplify the scanning mechanism of the optical machine, staring at the focal plane array on a large scale, no longer need the scanning optical machine, greatly simplify the whole machine system. One of the important marks of modern detector technology entering the second and third generation is the greatly increased number of elements. The other is the development of two - color and multi - spectrum detectors covering two or more bands simultaneously. All progress depends on the development and progress of new technologies, especially semiconductor technologies. Several landmark technologies are:


(1) semiconductor precision lithography technology enables the rapid development of detector technology from unit to multi-line detector, which is later referred to as the first generation detector.


(2)Si integrated circuit technology Si readout circuit is coupled with the large surface array of photosensitive elements, giving birth to the so-called second generation of large scale infrared focal plane array detector. Furthermore, there are new species such as Z plane and smart intelligent detector. The technology also induces uncooled focal plane arrays, which enliven once-neglected heat detectors.


(3) advanced thin layer material growth technologies, such as molecular beam epitaxy, metal organic chemical vapor deposition and liquid phase epitaxy, can repeat and precisely control the growth of large-area and highly uniform materials, making it possible to prepare large-scale infrared focal plane arrays. It is also a prerequisite for the appearance of quantum well detectors.


(4) the low temperature requirement of high-performance detector for micro-refrigeration technology drives the development of micro-refrigerator, and the refrigeration technology promotes the development and application of detector.


The development of infrared detector in China has been more than 40 years since 1958. It has successively developed PbS, PbSe, Ge: Au, Ge: Hg, InSb, PbSnTe, HgCdTe, PtSi/Si, GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well and pyroelectric detector. With the emergence of low-dimensional materials, nanometer electronics, photoelectric integration and other technologies are changing with each passing day. Physics and material science are the main basis of the development of modern technology.